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1-2 parts. Cylindrical bore. Flute type from the 16th and 17th century (so-called Renaissance flutes). Usually thin-walled, with 6 finger holes and a (small) mouth hole. Only a few original instruments from this period have been preserved. They were used for military as well as for civil purposes and built in different lengths and pitches. Very often they were played together with drum, but also with other instruments or as a so-called flute consort (discant, tenor, bass).

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2016-1Boaz Berney, Montreal /CA Tenor - Flöte in C nach Giovanni Bassano 2004
2016-3Benjamin Glauser / Ulrich Halder, Basel /CH Tenor - Flöte in C 2016in Vorbereitung
2008-4Friedrich von Huene, Boston /USA Tenor - Flöte in C um 1965

In the last third of the 17th century, first transverse flutes appeared in three parts (head joint, central joint (corpus) and food joint), with a cylindrical bore in the head joint, a conical bore in the corpus and an additional 7th tone hole for D sharp/E flat in the foot joint, operating with a key to close and open the hole. From about 1720, four-part flutes were built, with a corpus(center joint) now divided into a upper center joint with three finger (tone) holes for the left hand, and a lower center joint (the so-called ‘heart joint’)with three finger (tone) holes for the right hand. This allows the use of alternative upper center joints (so-called ‘corps de rechange’)in different lengths, in order to change the pitch of the flute.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2006 - 5 Rudolf Tutz, Innsbruck /A 1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Jacques Martin Hotteterre (um 1700)2005 Hotteterre:2006 - 5
2014 - 6 Giovanni Tardino, Basel /CH 1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Jacques Martin Hotteterre (um 1700)um 1990Hotteterre:2014 - 6
2007 - 7 Andreas Glatt, Beert /B 1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Pierre Naust, Paris (um 1710) 2007Blavet:2007 - 7
2016 - 8 D Ricardo Simian, Basel /CH1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Antoine Delerablée, Paris (anf. 18. Jhdt); Prototyp in 3D-Technik2016
2015 - 9 Martin Wenner, Singen /D 1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Carlo Palanca, Torino (um 1750)um 2000Platti:2015 - 9
2007 - 10 Gerhard Kowalewsky, Ostbargumland/D 1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Carlo Palanca, Torino (um 1750)um 1990
2010 - 11Martin Wenner, Singen /D2 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Johann Joachm Quantz, Berlin (um 1740)2010C.Ph.E.Bach:2010 - 11
2004 - 12Rudolf Tutz, Innsbruck /A1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach G. A. Rottenburgh, Brüssel (um 1750) um 1990Leclair:2004 - 12
2007 - 13Rudolf Tutz, Innsbruck /A1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach G. A. Rottenburgh, Brüssel (um 1750), Elfenbeinum 1974Leclair:2007 - 13
2015 - 14Rudolf Tutz, Innsbruck /A1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Jacob Denner, Nürnberg (um 1720)1999Händel:2015 - 14
2004 - 15Aulos, Japan /J1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach Th. Stanesby jun., London (um 1730)um 2000
2008 - 16Aulos, Japan /J1 Klappen-Flöte in C nach C. A. Grenser, Dresden (um 1785)um 2000
2007 - 17Henry Kusder, London /GB1 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1780
2007 - 18Longman & Broderip, London /GB1 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1780
2010 - 19Bühner & Keller, Strasbourg /F1 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 19. JhdtVorbereitung
2005 - 20Firth, Hall and Pond, New York /USA1 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1840
2015 - 21Iacob Streulli, Horgen /CH1 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 19. Jhdt
2014SB-22Andreas Greve, Mannheim /D1 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 19. JhdtMozart:2014SB-22
2014SB-23Camus, Paris /F1 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 19. Jhdt
2014SB-24G. A. Browne, London/GB1 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 19. Jhdt
2014SB-25Anonym, Herkunft unbekannt1 Klappen-Flöte in C, Elfenbein2. Hälfte 18. Jhdt (?)
2014SB-26 DKüng, Schaffhausen /CH1 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1950
2014SB-27 DAnonym, Herkunft unbekannt1 Klappen-Flöte in CDatierung unbekannt
2014SB-28 DAnonym, Herkunft unbekannt1 Klappen-Flöte in CDatierung unbekannt

Around 1760 in England first flutes with additional tone holes and corresponding keys were built. This improved the sound quality of F, G sharp and B flat by avoiding the previously necessary so-called fork fingerings. Some years later tone holes and respective keys for C sharp and C were added to the already existing D sharp in the foot joint. For flutes with a foot joint going down to D, the 4 keys usually produce D sharp, F, G sharp and B flat; flutes with 5-6 keys have in addition C2 and / or long-F. For 6 key flutes with a foot joint going down to C, C sharp and C are added to the 4 standard keys.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2014SB-29George Astor, London /GB6 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1800
2014SB-30Richard Potter, London /GB6 Klappen-Flöte in C, Modell für Linkshänder1777Haydn:2014SB-30
2005-31Potter, London /GB6 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1800
2007-32Pietro Grassi Florio, London /GB6 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1790Beethoven:2007-32
2004-33Imlay, London /GB4 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1850
2015-34Rudolf Tutz, Innsbruck /A4 Klappen-Flöte in C nach C. A. Grenser, Dresden (um 1790)um 1995Abel:2015-34
2013-35Georg Caspar Felchlin, Bern /CH4 Klappen-Flöte in C 1. Viertel 19. Jhdt
2016-36Joseph Carl Anton Felchlin, Bern /CH5 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1840
2014SB-37Wilhelm Liebel, Dresden /D4 Klappen-Flöte in Cerste Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-38Greve, Mannheim /D6 Klappen-Flöte in CMitte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-39Bühner & Keller, Strasbourg /F4 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Drittel 19. JhdtMozart:2014SB-39
2014SB-40Bühner & Keller, Strasbourg /F5 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1840
2014SB-41Claude Laurent, Paris /F 4 Klappen-Flöte in C, Kristallglasum 1815Devienne:2014SB-41
2014SB-42Clair Godfroy ainé, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1824Hugot:2014SB-42
2007-43Clair Godfroy ainé, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1827/28
2004SB-44Clair Godfroy ainé, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1831
2004-45Thibouville Frères, Ivry-la-Bataille /F5 Klappen-Flöte in C anf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-46 DTriebert, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in CMitte (?) 19. Jhdt
2014SB-47Tibouvile Frères, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-48 Jérome Thibouville-Lamy, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in CEnde 19. Jhdt
2014SB-49 DThibouville - Cabart, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-50 DEugène Thibouville, Ivry-la-Bataille, /F5 Klappen-Flöte in C anf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-51 DEugène Thibouville, Ivry-la-Bataille /F5 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-52 DGautrot ainé, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in C2. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-53 DFernand Chapelain & Cie., La Couture /F5 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1900
2014SB-54 DProsper Colas, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in C2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-55 DAnonym, Frankreich /F6 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-56 DAnonym, Frankreich /F6 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1900
2014SB-57Henn, Genève /CH6 Klappen-Flöte in CEnde 19. Jhdt
2014SB-58 DGebr. HUG, Basel /CH6 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-59 DHUG Frères, Zürich /CH 6 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-60 DMollenhauer, Fulda /D5 Klappen-Flöte in Cetwa Mitte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-61 DSchuster & Co., Markneukirchen /D6 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-62 DAnonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-63 DAnonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-64 DAnonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Flöte in C 1. Drittel 20. Jhdt

From about 1783 further keys were added to the 4 - 6 key flutes, especially a second key for F (with a long handle, for the little finger of the left hand) and one for C (usually for the index finger of the right hand). The concept of this 8-keyed flute – now generally with a foot joint to C – was in use far beyond the invention of the 'modern' flute by Theobald Boehm (from 1832), but often complemented by additional keys for trills, for alternative fingerings (often in the form of additional levers to existing keys) and by an extension of the foot joint with keys down to B, B flat, A or (rarely) G.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2014SB-65Rudall & Rose, London /GB8 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1840in Vorbereitung
2009-66Clementi & Co., London /GB8 Klappen-Flöte in C, Modell 'Nicholson Improved'um 1830Nicholson:2009-66
2006-67Thomas Prowse, London /GB8 Klappen-Flöte in C, Modell 'Nicholson Improved'um 1835
2009-68Richard Potter, London /GB8 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1800Mozart:2009-68
2009-69Metzler, London /GB8 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Drittel 19. Jhdt
2013-70Monzani & Co., London /GB11 Klappen-Flöte in C1827Monzani:2013-70
2013-71Jacob Georg Larshoff, Copenhagen /DK8 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Drittel 19. JhdtKuhlau:2013-71
2011-72Christian Wilhelm Liebel, Dresden /D8 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1840C.M.v.Weber:2011-72
2004-73Johann Andreas Mollenhauer, Fulda /D7 Klappen-Flöte in C, Modell 'Boehm 1829'Mitte 19. JhdtSchubert:2004-73
2014SB-74Rodolphe Greve, München /D7 Klappen-Flöte in C, Modell 'Boehm 1829'Mitte 19. JhdtSchubert:2014SB-74
2014SB-75Rodolphe Greve, München /D7 Klappen-Flöte in C, Modell 'Boehm 1829'Mitte 19. Jhdt
2004-76Anton Kraus, Augsburg /D10 Klappen-Flöte in C1848 - 1864
2005-77Heinrich Friedrich Meyer, Hannover /D10 Klappen-Flöte in C um 1880Grieg:2005-77
2010-78Berthold & Söhne, Speier /D8 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1885Rheinberger:2010-78
2011-79V. Kohlert Söhne, Graslitz /D14 Klappen-Flöte in C, System Pupeschium 1900
2014SB-80V. Kohlert Söhne, Graslitz /D10 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-81J. H. Zimmermann, Leipzig /D12 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-82 DMeinel und Herold, Klingenthal /D14 Klappen-Flöte in Canf. 20. Jhdt
2014SB-83A. S. Wolf, Hamburg /D10 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1825in Vorbereitung
2012-84Stephan Koch, Wien /A8 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1815Beethoven:2012-84
2009-85Johann Joseph Ziegler, Wien /A8 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1850
2009-86Johann Joseph Ziegler, Wien /A11 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1870
2014SB-87Johann Joseph Ziegler, Wien /A9 Klappen-Flöte in CMitte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-88Johann Joseph Ziegler, Wien /A10 Klappen-Flöte in CMitte 19. JhdtMozart:2014SB-88
2004-89Anonym, Italien /I13 Klappen-Flöte in C, 'Wiener Stil'anf. 20. Jhdt
2006-90Agostino Rampone, Milano /I11 Klappen-Flöte in C,'Wiener Stil'anf. 20. Jhdt
2016-91Agostino Rampone, Milano /I10 Klappen-Flöte in C, Neusilber, doppelwandige Konstruktionum 1880
2010-92Clair Godfroy ainé, Paris /F10 Klappen-Flöte in CMitte 19. Jhdtin Vorbereitung
2005-93Jérome Thibouville-Lamy, Paris /F10 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1880Pleyel:2005-93
2017-240Tulou, Paris /F12 Klappen-Flöte in C, System 'Tulou perfectionnée'um 1852in Vorbereitung
2014SB-94Triebert, Paris /F7 Klappen-Flöte in CMitte 19. JhdtJ. Widerkehr:2014SB-94
2007-95Anonym, Frankreich/England /F/GB12 Klappen-Flöte in C um 1877
2014SB-96 DSchuster und Co., Markneukirchen /D10 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-97 DSchuster & Co., Markneukirchen /D10 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-98 DHUG & Co., Zürich /CH 13 Klappen-Flöte in C anf. 20.Jhdt
2014SB-99 DAnton Lutz, Wien /A12 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1880
1984-100 DAnonym, Deutschland /D10 Klappen-Flöte in C um 1920
2014SB-101 DAnonym, Deutschland /D10 Klappen-Flöten in Cum 1900
2014SB-102 DAnonym, Deutschland /D8 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1900
2014SB-103 DAnonym, Deutschland /D12 Klappen-Flöte in Cum 1900
2010-104 DAnonym, Deutschland /D14 Klappen-Flöte in C1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2007-105 DAnonym, Deutschland /D8 Klappen-Flöte in CEnde 19. Jhdt

With the introduction of the cylindrical Boehm system flute around 1850 some manufacturers combined the conventional multi - keyed mechanism with a tube of cylindrical bore. However, with a few exceptions, this construction was restricted to simple metal flutes of French production for use in brass bands.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2010-106Rudall Carte & Co., London /GB8 Klappen-Flöte in C, zylindrisch, Modell 'Concert Flute'1893in Vorbereitung
2014SB-107Charles Mathieu, Paris /F5 Klappen-Flöte in C, zylindrisch, Neusilberum 1900
2007-108Foetisch Frères, Lausanne /CH8 Klappen-Flöte in C, zylindrisch, Neusilberum 1900
2014SB-109 DFoetisch Frères, Lausanne /CH6 Klappen-Flöte in C, zylindrisch, Neusilberum 1900

Theobald Boehm (1794 - 1881) developed a new type of flute in 1832, which aimed for a higher volume, a more homogeneous sound and an improved intonation compared to the then current flutes. Boehm achieved this through a novel key system, which consists of almost exclusively open standing keys. This means that the tone holes below the lowest closed tone hole (usually) remain open and thus allow a strong and clear sound. Further features of the Bohm system are larger tone holes, their acoustically more correct positioning and a new fingering for the right hand (D-E-F, compared to the previous sequence D-E-F sharp). Thanks to ring keys and key levers, which are connected by axes, it has now been possible to open and close all 14 tone holes with the 9 available fingers. In addition, Boehm optimized the bore, but for the time being held on a conical tube with a cylindrical head joint.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2008-110Rudall & Rose, London /GBkonische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832, Nr. 391843/44Elgar:2008-110
2009-111Louis Lot, Paris /Fkonische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832, Nr. 56072. Hälfte 19. JhdtFauré:2009-111
2014SB-112Clair Godfroy ainé, Paris /Fkonische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832Mitte 19. JhdtFauré:2014SB-112
2014SB-113Anonym, Frankreich /Fkonische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832Mitte 19. Jhdt
2006-114Eugène Thibouville, Ivry-la-Bataille /Fkonische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832Ende 19. Jhdt
2014SB-115Bühner & Keller, Strasbourg /Fkonische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832um 1840Massenet:2014SB-115
2013-116J. M. Bürger, Strassburg /Dkonische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832um 1900
2017-241Rodolphe Greve, München /D konische Ringklappen-Flöte in C, System Boehm 1832um 1850

In 1839, Theobald Boehm sold his workshop to his former employee Rudolph Greve (1806 - 1862) and spent several years working on other topics (including the improvement of iron smelting processes). From 1845 he again devoted himself to the flute, in order to improve some weaknesses of his conical flute (System 1832). After numerous acoustic experiments and calculations - together with his friend, the physicist C. E. Schafhäutl - Boehm changed the hitherto conical bore of the tube into a cylindrical and that of the head joint from a cylindrical into a so-called parabolic. He also recalculated the position and diameter of the sound holes. In addition, Boehm now preferred the use of metal instead of wood for the tubes, but continued to build instruments made of wood. In 1847 Boehm started the production of this new flute model under his name. In 1854 the watchmaker Carl Mendler (1833 - 1914) joined him as an employee, becoming partner in 1862 and producing now as Boehm & Mendler, under which name the workshop was active until 1888.

Boehm's models were also manufactured outside his own workshop in Munich. In 1847, he got a patent for his new cylindrical flute; in the same year, he licensed the Société Godfroy fils et Lot in Paris and the London firm of Rudall & Rose (later Rudall Carte & Co) for production of this model. Later, many other flute makers in Europe and USA took over Boehm's new concept. It established itself in the various countries at different speeds, but until the first third of the 20th century was accepted worldwide and has remained basically unchanged until today.

Unless otherwise noted, all cylindrical Boehm flutes are built in three parts (head joint, corpus, foot joint) and comprise at least 15 keys (including trill keys for C/D + C sharp/D and C sharp/D sharp), and an additional lever for B or B flat. The key cups are closed or perforated; the thumb key for B is provided with an additional lever for B flat. The G key lies in a straight line with the remaining keys (= G inline), or slightly offset (= G offset). The G sharp key is open-standing or closed (in this case with an additional tone hole), or as so-called Dorus-G sharp with a special opening mechanism and on a separate external axis. Deviations from this basic scheme are specifically listed.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2014SB-117Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 2631857 Fauré: 2014SB-117
2014SB-118Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holz, Nr. 351/12151859/1868Fauré: 2014SB-118
2014SB-119Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 6061862Gaubert:2014SB-119
2014SB-120Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 13641869Saint-Saens: 2014SB-120
2014SB-121Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, Nr. 30541881Bizet: 2014SB-121
2014SB-122Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber/Neusilber, Nr. 50781891
2008-123Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 69041901Debussy:2008-123
2017-124Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 92681923
2008-125Louis Lot, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C,Silber, Nr. 10'3881948
2005-126Auguste Buffet dit jeune, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber2. Hälfte 19. JhdtGodard:2005-126
2008-127Auguste Bonneville, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C,Silber, Nr. 2645um 1910Godard:2008-127
2014SB-128Auguste Bonneville, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, Nr. 2350um 1905
2010-129Florentin Barbier, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silberum 1900Fauré:2010-129
2014SB-130Florentin Barbier / Couesnon & Cie, Paris /F Zylindrische Böhmflöte in C, mit quadratischem Korpus, Neusilber, Nr. 891um 1900in Vorbereitung
2014-131L. L. Lebret, Paris /​FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, Nr. 2603um 1925Fauré:2014-131
2009-132L. L. Lebret, Paris /​FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, Nr. 4007um 1940
2015-133 DL. L. Lebret, Paris /​FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, Nr. 4841um 1952
2005-134 DL. L. Lebret, Paris /​FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilbernach 1950 (?)
2006-135Couesnon & Cie, Paris /​FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Modell Marcel Moyse, Neusilber, Nr. 309811. Hälfte 20. JhdtFauré:​2006-135
2012-136 DCouesnon & Cie, Paris /​FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Modell Marcel Moyse, Neusilber1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2008-137Henri Selmer, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 1324um 1930
2015-138Marigaux S.M.L., Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 2245 um 1955
2008-139 DAu Diapason, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, mit Ringklappenanf. 20. Jhdt
2016-140Couesnon & Cie., Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, mit Ringklappen anf. 20. Jhdt
2018-246Djalma Julliot, La Couture-Boussey /F Zylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holz, mit Metallkopf, Nr. 27911928
2014SB-141 DBuffet - Crampon, Paris /FZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holzum 1900 (?)
2006-142Boehm & Mendler, München /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holzum 1870in Vorbereitung
1996-143V. Kohlert Söhne, Graslitz /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holzanf. 20. Jhdt
2007-144Otto Mönnig, Leipzig /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holz, Modell 'Orthoton' Nr. 66821. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-145Otto Mönnig, Leipzig /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holz, Modell 'Orthoton' Nr. 4241. Drittel 20. JhdtRheinberger:2014SB-145
2017-244Otto Mönnig, Leipzig /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holz, Modell 'Orthoton' Nr. 6091. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-146Adler & Co., Markneukirchen /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holzum 1900
2014SB-147Johannes Hammig, Freiburg i. Br. /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber vergoldet, Nr. 1131um 1968
2006-148August Richard Hammig, Markneukirchen /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr.4009 um 1960
2014SB-149Philipp Hammig, Markneukirchen /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 5257 1969
2008-150Gerhard Rudolf Uebel, Wohlhausen / Vogtland /DZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Aluminium, Nr. 11511967in Vorbereitung
2015-151Alfred G. Badger, New York /USAZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silberum 1880in Vorbereitung
1968-152Wm. S. Haynes Co., Boston /USAZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Silber, Nr. 36'5931968
2014SB-153K. G. Gemeinhardt, Elkhart, Ind. /USAZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Neusilber, Nr. 111'221um 1962
2014SB-154Brannen - Cooper, Boston /USAZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Gold / Silber, Nr. 22351994
2014SB-155Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holz, Nr. 56671914in Vorbereitung
2009-156Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Holz, Nr. 34'7151902/1935in Vorbereitung
2009-157Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Böhmflöte in C, Ebonite, Nr. 1924, Modell Rockstro1889in Vorbereitung

Theobald Boehm'​s new system found considerable resistance in some places. While some flutists complained that the new instrument had lost the '​real',​ sweet sound of flutes, the new fingering system found resistance in others. To counter these latter reservations from their customers, innovative flute makers - often self-practicing flautists - developed alternative key systems that kept the familiar fingerings of the conventional multi-keyed flute as far as possible, without neglecting the new achievements of the Boehm system – what means its strong and homogeneous sound through the ‘parabolic’ and cylindrical bore as well as through the size and positioning of the tone holes. Primarily it was Richard Carte (1808 - 1891) with his company Rudall Carte & Co., who produced various such '​hybrid'​ models. Some flute makers clinged to the conical bore and developed other systems, as e.g. in Germany the so-called '​reform flute'​. However, history shows that Boehm'​s system of 1847 ultimately prevailed and has remained practically unchanged until today.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2005-158Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Silber, Nr. 3477, Modell Patent 1851um 1903in Vorbereitung
2005-159Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Holz, Nr. 3022, Modell Patent 18671898
2010-160Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Holz, Modell Radcliffum 1875in Vorbereitung
2009-161Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Flöte in A, Holz, Nr. 6735, Modell Guard1921
2017-242Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Silber, Nr. 1675, Modell 'Old System'1887
2005-162Anonym, England /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Holz, System 'Old System'um 1900
2005-163Boosey & Co., London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Ebonite, Nr. 21'547, System 'Old System'1921
2014SB-164 DJérome Thibouville-Lamy, London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Holz, System 'Old System'um 1900
2012-165Abel Siccama, London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Holz, Nr. 930, System Siccamaum 1860Foster:2012-165
2004-166 DAnonym, England /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Holz, System Siccamaum 1900
2004-167Henry Potter, London /GBKonische Flöte in B (?), 'Bass Flute', Holz, System Siccamaum 1880
2010-168John Clinton, London /GBKonische Flöte in C, Holz, Nr. 3035, Modell 'Equisonant'um 1860Clinton:2010-168
2010-169Joseph Wallis & Son, London /GBZylindrische Flöte in C, Ebonite, System Giorgium 1900
2012-170 Jim Schmidt, Sanger, CA /USAZylindrische Flöte in C, Silber, 'Linear Fingering System'1987
2006-171Friedrich A. Lederer, Schöneck /DKonische Flöte in C, Holz, Typus Reformflöte nach Schwedleranf. 20. Jhdt
2008-172Carl Kruspe, Leipzig /DKonische Flöte in C, Holz, Reformflöte System Schwedler-Kruspe 1898 um 1910in Vorbereitung
2008-173Moritz Max Mönnig, Leipzig /DKonische Flöte in C, Holz, Reformflöte System Schwedler-Mönnig 1921um 1925
Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2014SB-174Louis Lot, Paris /FKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Silber vergoldet, Nr. 2498 um 1878
2014SB-175Louis Lot, Paris /FKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Silber, Nr. 7208um 1903
2014SB-176Clair Godfroy ainé, Paris /FKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Silber, Nr. 1016 um 1870
2014SB-177 DAnonym, Frankreich (?) /FKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Neusilber20. Jhdt (?)
2014SB-178 DAnonym, Frankreich (?) /FKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Neusilber20. Jhdt (?)
2014SB-179Anonym, Frankreich (?) /FKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Neusilber20. Jhdt (?)
2014SB-180Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-181Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-182Anonym, England /GBKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-183J.R.Lafin, Lörrach /DKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Gold 18 ct1991
1992-184J.R.Lafin, Lörrach /DKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Silber, Mundplatte Gold 14 ct1992
2014SB-185Otto Mönnig, Leipzig /DKopfstück System Böhm 1847, Modell 'Orthoton', Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-186Anonym, Deutschland /DKopfstück für Mehrklappen-Flöte, Elfenbeinum 1900 (?)
2014SB-223Louis Lot, Paris /FKopfstück für Piccolo-Flöte, Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt (?)
2014SB-224Louis Lot, Paris /FKopfstück für Piccolo-Flöte, Neusilber1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt (?)

The third flute in E flat stands a third higher than the usual flute in C: fingering C produces E flat. The earliest 1keyed conical third flutes were built around 1720 by the famous Nuremberg instrument maker Jacob Denner. In the 19. century, 4-5 further keys were added. Some instruments were also built in the form of walking sticks flutes (s. 2007-197). Rather rarely, third flutes were also built according to Boehm'​s systems of 1832 (conical bore, see 2005-195) and 1847 (cylindrical bore). However, the third flute could hardly establish itself as a solo instrument and the number of original compositions is very small. Probably it played its most important role in military bands and folklore ensembles. ​

Source: Peter Thalheimer, Die Terzflöte in Es. Baugeschichte,​ Repertoire und Spielpraxis. Musica instrumentalis vol. 3, Nürnberg 2001

Obj. Nr.HerstellerInstrumentHerstellungs-JahrKlang-Beispiel
Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2013-187Peter Künzi, Thun /CH1 Klappen-Terzflöte in Es, Holz1. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2004-188Simoutre, Basel /CH6 Klappen-Terzflöte in Es, Holz2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-189Thibouville-Buffet, Paris /F5 Klappen-Terzflöte in Es, Holz2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-190Anonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Terzflöte in Es, Holz1. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-191 DEugène Thibouville, Ivry-la-Bataille /F6 Klappen-Terzflöte in Es, HolzEnde 19. Jhdt
2014SB-192 DGautrot ainé, Paris /F4 Klappen-Terzflötein Es, Holz2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-193 DLaberte-Humbert, Paris /F5 Klappen-Terzflöte in Es, Holzum 1900 (?)
2004-194Anonym, England /GB6 Klappen-Terzflöte in Es, Neusilber1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt (?)
2005-195Buffet-Crampon & Cie., Paris /FKonische Ringklappen-Terzflöte in Es, System Böhm 1832, Holz2 Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2010-243S.M., Japan /JZylindrische 3 Klappen-Quartflöte in F, NeusilberMitte 20. Jhdt (?)

Walking-stick flutes were in great fashion in the 19th century, especially in Germany, Austria and England. They allowed the gallant gentleman to turn his walking-stick into a musical instrument. Corresponding sticks with built-in recorder / csakan, clarinet or violin are known. Particularly sophisticated walking-sticks were equipped with several instruments,​ additional gadgets (e.g. telescope; lens), keys imitating wooden knots, etc.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2009-196Baumann, Paris /FKonische 1 Klappen-Stockflöte in C, HolzAnf. 19. Jhdt
2007-197Anonym, Deutschland /DKonische 4 Klappen-Stockflöte in E oder Es (?), HolzEnde 19. Jhdt (?)
2006-198Martin Meyer, Zürich /CHZylindrische Kolbenflöte in Form eines Blindenstockes, Holz/Metall2006

The term Piccolo was not used in France until the beginning of the 19th century. It described the „​petite flûte à l'​octave“,​ which appeared around 1700 as „​little sister“​ of the conical 1-keyed flute which was in use at the court of Louis XIV. Starting from 1730, the 1-keyed ‘petite flûte’ was increasingly taken into account in the French music, and by the end of the century also replaced the traditional keyless fifre (fife) in the French army. The evolution of the large flute from the 1-keyed to the multi-keyed instrument, and finally to the Boehm system, was followed by the piccolo as well, but many folklore groups deliberately adhere to their simple 1-keyed models.

Quelle: Ulrich Halder, Schwegel, Zwerch- und Schweitzerpfeiff – eine kuze Geschichte der kurzen Flöte. Glareana Heft 1/2 , Basel 2009 ( S. 4 – 28)

Obj. No. Manufacturer Type of Instrument Year of ManufactureSound Sample
2014-199 Claude Laurent, Paris /F 1 Klappen - Piccoloflöte in C, Kristallglas1812
206-200Anonym, Frankreich /F1 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in Des, Holzum 1800 (?)
2010-201Anonym, Deutschland /D1 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in Des, Holz1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-202F. X. Kaiser, Zug /CH1 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holz1. Hälfte 19. Jhdt
2005-203Anonym, England /GB1 Klappen – Piccoloflöte in C / 'Whistle' in Des, Holz2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt (?)
2009-204Buffet-Crampon & Cie., Paris /F6 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holzum 1900
2014SB-205Tulou, Paris /F5 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, HolzMitte 19. Jhdt
2014SB-206Ch. G. Geisler, Amsterdam /NL4 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in Es, HolzMitte 19. Jhdt
2004-207HUG & Co., Basel /CH6 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holzanf. 20. Jhdt
2004-208E. Oesch, Basel /CH6 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, 'Basler Piccolo', Holz mit Metallkopfum 1985
2010-209Anonym, Deutschland /D4 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-210Anonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in Des, Holz mit Elfenbeinkopf2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt ?
2010-211 DAnonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holz mit Metallkopf1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt ?
2008-212 DAnonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt ?
2014SB-213 DAnonym, Deutschland /D6 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holz1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt ?
2014SB-214 DAnonym, Frankreich /F4 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in Des, Holz2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt ?
2004-215 DAnonym, Herkunftsland ?1 Klappen-Piccoloflöte in C, Holz2. Hälfte 19. Jhdt ?
Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2010-216Claude Rive (Suc. A. Robert), Paris /FKonische Piccoloflöte in C, Syst. Böhm, Ringklappen, Holz1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-217Auguste Bonneville, Paris /FKonische Piccoloflöte in C, Syst. Böhm, Ringklappen, Holz1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-218Barlassina & Billoro, Milano /IZylindrische Piccoloflöte in C, Syst. Böhm, Silber1. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2014SB-219Luigi Vanotti, Milano /IZylindrische Piccoloflöte in C, Syst. Böhm, Neusilber, Nr. 27991. Drittel 20. Jhdt
2008-220Wm. S. Haynes, Boston /USAKonische Piccoloflöte in C, Syst. Böhm, Silber, Nr. 33'2351965
2014SB-221 DGemeinhardt Inc., Elkhart, Indiana /USAKonische Piccoloflöte in C, Syst. Böhm, Neusilber, Nr. 4683Mitte 20. Jhdt
2009-222Moritz Max Mönnig, Leipzig /DKonische Piccoloflöte in C, Syst. Schwedler-Mönnig Reformflöte, Holz mit Metallkopfum 1925

The names for flutes played in a transverse position are not uniform and vary according to the time period, cultural region and use. Nowadays, high pitched keyless transverse flutes with a cylindrical or conical, in any case narrow bore are commonly referred to as fifes. Their origins can be traced back to the Middle Ages, where they were used – mostly ​ in close partnership with the drum – to entertain, motivate and discipline military troops during march, combat and camp life, but also to accompany religious and governmental ceremonies (e.g. processions;​ parades) and social events (e.g. dancing) or to contribute to all sorts of ‘Hausmusik’ (e.g. '​Schwegeln'​ in the Eastern Alps). Even though today the simple fife has often been displaced by the keyed piccolo flute, the ‘small flute’ in all its varieties still does not deny its military and ceremonial origin and plays its role, often together with drums and other percussion instruments,​ in a large variety of ethnic and patriotic events: in American fife and drum corps, Irish flute bands, the Basel Carneval, German ‘Spielmannszüge’,​ etc.

Source: Ulrich Halder, Schwegel, Zwerch- und Schweitzerpfeiff. Eine kurze Geschichte der kurzen Flöte. In: Glareana 1/2, 2009

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2005-225Hausa Schmidl, Treffen/Villach /AKonischer Schwegel in Esum 1980
2007-226Karl Wyssen, Brig /CHWalliser Natwärischpfeife in Asum 1995
2009-227 DKarl Wyssen, Brig /CHNeue Schweizerpfeife, Prototypum 2007
2016-228Thomas Fehr, Gähwil /CHNeue Schweizerpfeife in B, Modell 20132016
2009-229Edouard Sommer, Valais /CHZylindrische Pfeife in Des; Aluminiumum 1950
2014SB-230Oscar Adler & Co., Markneukirchen /DKonische Trommelpfeife in Des, Modell SONORA, mit Tragköcher und Anblashilfe1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2005-231 DAnonym, Deutschland /DKonische Trommelpfeife in B1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-232 DAnonym, Deutschland /DKonische Trommelpfeife in B1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2008-233VEB Sinfonia, Markneukirchen /DKonische Trommelflöte in B; Pastalit2. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2009-234Hammerschmidt, Burgau /DKonische Pfeife in Des, Modell KLINGSONum 1980
2010-235George Cloos, New York /USAKonische Pfeife in As, Modell CROSBY1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt

Flutes of the low register are known under different names and in different pitches since the Renaissance. As an example, the so-called ‘flauto d’amore’ in A or B was a popular ensemble instrument in the 18th and 19th century. These instruments had a conical bore and one or more keys. The cylindrical Alto flute in G of today goes back Theobald Boehm, who began to design it following the invention of his C flute (1847) and sold the first examples in 1858. Boehm'​s instrument followed the concept of his C flute, albeit in larger dimensions (for example, tube diameter 26 mm, tone holes 19.3 mm) and with modified keywork especially in the left hand to facilitate the fingering. ​ His Alto flutes were made in metal as well as in wood, but altogether only in small numbers. His concept of the Alto flute was later taken over by numerous other producers, but mostly with more conventional mechanics and a smaller tube diameter. As in its cylindrical C flutes, Rudall Carte & Co. also built the Alto flute in several of their ‘hybrid’ fingering systems.

Bass flutes in C - they play an octave lower than the '​normal'​ C flute - have already been described by Agricola (1528) and Mersenne (1637). Several instruments from the 18th century have been preserved, built among others by Beuker, Amsterdam and the French instrument makers Thomas Lot and Charles Delusse. In order to be able to hold the heavy instrument better, the flutist Abelardo Albis, Milano designed a flute to be played in a vertical position. This so-called '​Albisiphone'​ followed the Böhm-System,​ had an almost horn-like sound and had its appearance in some Italian operas of the early 20th century. Despite their considerable weight, today'​s bass flutes are usually played in the conventional horizontal manner. The instrument is mainly used in ensembles; solo literature is rare and mostly from contemporary composers, often with experimental character and using electronic devices for special tonal effects.

Obj. No.ManufacturerType of InstrumentYear of ManufactureSound Sample
2011-236Rudall Carte & Co., London /GBZylindrische Altflöte in G, System Böhm, Silber, Nr. 66821924
2014-237F. Hofinger, Bruxelles /BZylindrische Altflöte in G, System Böhm, Neusilberum 1950
2014SB-238R. Leblond, Paris /FZylindrische Altflöte in G, System Böhm, Neusilber1. Hälfte 20. Jhdt
2014SB-239Hernals, Tokyo /JZylindrische Altflöte in G, System Böhm, Neusilberum 1980
2017-245Werner Wetzel, Berlin /DZylindrische Bassflöte in C, System Böhm, Neusilber, Nr. 951um 1970